Answer ONE of the following questions.(About 800 words in length, and may not exceed 1000 words (excluding references))1. Popper argues that modifying a theory in an ad hoc fashion “rescues the theory from refutation only at the price of destroying, or at least lowering, its scientific status” (p. 48). Clarify Popper’s argument for this claim. How can one defend the scientific legitimacy of ad hoc modifications against Popper’s argument?2. Clarify Kuhn’s main arguments for the claim that the “issue of paradigm choice can never be unequivocally settled by logic and experiment alone” (p. 94). Then, discuss a potential objection to Kuhn’s arguments for this claim.3. According to Giere, the general laws of physics “are not really statements about the world” (p. 90). Clarify Giere’s main arguments for this claim, and discuss a potential objection to his arguments.*Important instruction attached
- ISB PGP Pro Admission Essay
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