Distinguish between random assignment and matching as techniques for creating equivalent groups. Why do experimenters try to create equivalent groups? Give examples of situations where each technique is more likely to be used.

Section B:
In the Section B: Short Answer Questions, there are THREE ITEMS. Be sure to follow the instructions and complete all of them. Each ITEM is on a separate page. The point value for each item is stated below, on each item.

Item #1: You have a choice on this item. Answer FIVE of the 9 questions listed below. Each question should be answered in about one paragraph. Be sure to answer all parts of the questions selected.
(Item #1 Total = 25 points, 5 points each)

Psychological scientists make the assumptions of determinism and discoverability. What do they mean by these terms and why do they consider them an essential part of their belief system? Illustrate each term with an example.

You wish to begin a research program to investigate the relationship between various driving distracters (possibilities include cell phones, radios, passengers, etc.) and driving problems (possibilities include poor driving, moving violations, accidents, road rage, etc.) among young drivers (i.e., ages 16-21). You plan to conduct several studies over a five-year period. Develop TWO DIFFERENT research questions. For each question, 1) identify which of the four GOALS OF RESEARCH in psychology it addresses and 2) categorize the type of research question, using Supplement4B. Hint: Keep it simple.

Distinguish between random assignment and matching as techniques for creating equivalent groups. Why do experimenters try to create equivalent groups? Give examples of situations where each technique is more likely to be used.

Explain the difference between internal validity and external validity. Use an example to illustrate. In your opinion, which is more important to maximize in a study? Explain.

In ONE paragraph, discuss the major sections of an APA style paper, indicating what information you would expect to find in each section. Use just a sentence (or two) to describe each section.

Discuss the problem of experimenter bias and three approaches that can be taken to avoid this problem.

Discuss the problem of bias in volunteerism in research using human participants. How do volunteers and nonvolunteers differ? How might those differences affect the outcome of research? How can the problem of bias in volunteerism be reduced?

Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of using animals as research subjects.

BRIEFLY discuss three historical events that led up to the adoption of the present APA code of ethics.

Item #2: Four between-subjects designs are described below. Select TWO of the four studies below and complete the table below. Answer in phrases/point form.
(Item #2 Total = 12 points, 1 point for your response in each cell of the table)

A psychology professor is trying to figure out whether student performance is higher in online courses or F2F courses. Since she is scheduled to teach one online section of PSY 212 and one F2F section of PSY 212 in the Fall 2019 semester (enrollment opened early and students already self-enrolled), she plans to compare their performance on the same take-home exams.

Three groups of preschoolers (25 per group, assigned randomly to groups) are in a study of task perseverance in which the size of the reward is varied. The children in all three groups are given a difficult puzzle and told to work on it as long as they would like. One group is told that as payment they will be given a Halloween-sized candy at the end of the session. The second group will get a regular-sized candy bar at the end of the session, and the third group will get a king-sized candy bar at the end of the session.

In an attempt to identify the personality characteristics of students who use social media in different ways, three groups of college students are identifiedthose who do not use social media, those who use social media occasionally, and those who use social media during every waking hour. They are given a personality test that identifies whether they have an outgoing personality or a shy personality.

To examine whether crowding affects problem-solving performance, an equal number of participants are placed in either a large or a small room while attempting to solve a set of word puzzles. Before assigning participants to the two conditions, the researcher takes a measure of their verbal intelligence to ensure that the group assignment process produces groups that are equivalent on verbal IQ.

Item #3: Choose ONE of the FOUR research problems listed below and answer the following questions based on that research problem. Use this question to demonstrate your knowledge about the between-subjects experimental design.
(Item #3 Total = 13 points)
You work at an outpatient clinic that treats people for depression. You have been asked to design an experiment that investigates which drug (i.e., Propranalol or Xanax) is most effective for treating anxiety among senior citizens. Your boss plans to provide new drug prescribing guidelines to the hospitals physicians based on your findings.

You work in the training department of a national restaurant chain. Your company invests a lot in training new managers. Your company is concerned about high turnover among employees, particularly new assistant managers and managers. In the past, each region (i.e., West or East) of the U.S. has selected its own program for training. You have been asked to design an experiment that determines which regions management training program is best for retaining managers.

You work at a gym that trains developing swimmers for the U.S. Olympic team. Right now, some swimmers prefer high reps with light weights while other swimmers prefer low reps with heavy weights. You have been asked to design an experiment that identifies the best strength-training program to help swimmers develop and maintain upper-body strengthin order to improve their swimming performance.

You work at a library. You have been asked to determine if the library should expand the number of soundproof cubicles that would permit students to study with music playing in the background. Your boss only wants to construct new cubicles if the results of an experiment suggest that it could improve student performance.

Briefly answer the following questions for (each question is worth 1 point):

1. What is your research question?
2. What is your null hypothesis?
3. What is your research hypothesis?
4. How will you assign participants to groups? Why (this approach)?
5. What is your independent variable (IV)? Name it.
6. Give a good operational definition of your IV.
7. What are the levels of your IV?
8. What is your dependent variable (DV)?
9. Give a good operational definition of your DV. How will it be measured?
10. What sampling approach will you use? (very briefly explain how this will work)
11. List inclusion & exclusion criteria (one of eachand not opposites).
12. List two potential threats to internal validity.
13. What actions you can take to address the two threats to internal validity that you identified above?